Evidencebased complementary and alternative medicine. Bites by the sawscaled or carpet viper echis carinatus. Blood coagulation induced by iranian sawscaled viper echis. The effect of echis carinatus crude venom and purified. Echis carinatus the sawscaled or carpet viper, also known as echis osellatus is the most significant cause of snakebite mortality in western africa. Fortysix patients with systemic poisoning by this snake were given echis antivenom made either by the south african institute for medical research s.
The west african carpet viper echis ocellatus causes more deaths than any other snake in subsaharan africa. Carinactivase1, abbreviated ca1 as a new type of prothrombin activator, has been found to differ from ecarin 2. Successful management of two patients with intracranial. Echistatin from echis carinatus catalog number e1518 storage temperature 20 c cas rn 129038422 product description echistatin is a polypeptide isolated from the venom of echis carinatus, the sawscaled viper, and is purified by a modification of a published method. Ssv envenoming is characterized by local swelling and coagulopathy. In contrast to other part of asia, saw scale viper envenoming has not been reported to cause life threatening haemorrhagic manifestations. Echis carinatus crude venom was fractionated into 11 protein fractions by preparative native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis page. Echis carinatus sochureki is found in northern india, pakistan, southern afghanistan, south and central iran, the united arab emirates, and oman the wildlife of pakistan website gives the range as northern india, pakistan except the high mountains in north, southern afghanistan, central iran to the coast of the iranian gulf and khuzestan. Itis taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. A total of 90, 47, and 22 distinct enzymatic and nonenzymatic proteins belonging to 15, 10, and 6 snake. Characterization of crude echis carinatus venominduced. Structural characterization of myotoxic ecarpholin s from echis carinatus venom. May, 2019 echis carinatus snake venom pdf posted on may, 2019 by admin ecarin is a snake venom echis carinatus that directly activates prothrombin to meizothrombin this action is not dependent on phospholipid membranes and.
Neutrophils, the major leukocytes in the early defence process, accumulate at the bite site. Pdf archived 20070927 at the wayback machine at journal of the american society of. Echis carinatus saw scaled viper ssv is a venomous snake found in the parts of middle east and central asia. This article is from journal of venom research, volume 2. Echis carinatus is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality from snake bite in nigeria and in many other parts of the world. Blood coagulation induced by iranian sawscaled viper. Ecarin chapter 240, an enzyme in echis carinatus sochureki now renamed echis sochureki, is a singlechain metallotype enzyme of 55 kda that exhibits strict substrate specificity 1.
Life threatening intracerebral haemorrhage following saw. Common names small in length, cylindrical and moderately slender bodied snake with a very short tail. The results of evaluating the systemic acute toxicity of the h. Victims of severe echis carinatus venom poisoning develop incoagulable blood and spontaneous systemic bleeding, with evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation warrell et al. Proteomics and antivenomics of echis carinatus carinatus venom. Prothrombin preparations which are treated with full doses of the procoagulant can be activated.
Different assays were performed according to standard techniques, to evaluate the plants acute toxicity and its antivenom activities. In vitro, the purified procoagulant from echis carinatus venom converts prothrombin from various sources, for example defibrinized human plasma, purified bovine complex seegers, and deae prothrombin. Netosis and lack of dnase activity are key factors in. Ecarin, the prothrombin activating enzyme in echis carinatus venom, was purified to homogeneity in 1978 4 and was found to be a single. Pdf proteomics and antivenomics of echis carinatus carinatus. The results of evaluating the systemic acute toxicity of the. The purification procedure included gel filtration on sephadex g50, cationexchange chromatography on mono s, and c18 reversephase high pressure liquid chromatography. Echis carinatus stock pictures, royaltyfree photos. Ecarin from echis carinatus venom product number e 0504 storage temperature 0 c product description cas number. The sawscaled or carpet viper echis carinatus whose range extends from senegal to bengal probably bites and kills more people than any other.
The venom of iranian echis carinatus is a rich source of protein with various factors affecting the plasma protein and blood coagulation factor. The proteome composition of echis carinatus carinatus venom ecv from india was studied for the first time by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Within the family of viperidae the venoms of echis coloratus and echis carinatus were among the first to be recognized to contain prothrombin activating principles. Download fulltext pdf download fulltext pdf snakebite envenoming by sochureks sawscaled viper echis carinatus sochureki article pdf available in prague medical report 1171. Netosis and lack of dnase activity are key factors in echis. Poisoning by bites of the sawscaled or carpet viper. Rediscovery of severe sawscaled viper echis sochureki. Echis carinatus sinhaleyus deraniyagala, 1951 at tomas mazuch. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the creative commons cc0 license. Download help echis carinatus sochureki tsn 635287. Various bleeding manifestations are commonly seen with ssv envenoming.
Echis carinatus carinatus schneider, 1801 subspecies. Echis carinatus schneider, 1801 sawscaled viper, phoorsa. However, the thrombin activity achieved is lower than with tissue thromboplastin. Pdf structural characterization of myotoxic ecarpholin s. Indian echis carinatus bite causes sustained tissue destruction at the bite site. Over 5 echis carinatus pictures to choose from, with no signup needed. The objective of the study is to investigate the antisnake venom activities of a local plant, hibiscus aethiopicus l. The isolated echistatin, according to this method, is composed of. Antivenom was relatively ineffective in restoring coagulation to. Evidencebased complementary and alternative medicine hindawi. Urdu lundi ref echis carinatus carinatus ref echis carinatus sochureki english sochureks saw scaled. Find highquality echis carinatus stock photos and editorial news pictures from getty images.
Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. The eluate from barium sulfate absorbtion of patient plasma, when reacted with echis carinatus venom which directly cleaves prothrombin to thrombin clotted purified fibrinogen at a rate slower than normal plasma eluate. Ecarin is a snake venom echis carinatus that directly activates prothrombin to meizothrombin. The prothrombinactivating principle from echis carinatus. Apr 19, 2016 indian echis carinatus bite causes sustained tissue destruction at the bite site. Most of the bites will cause panic reaction, but do not cause envenomation, however, there are few snake species that are venomous and of these four big four namely russells viper daboia russelii, common cobra naja naja, sawscaled viper echis carinatus and common krait bungarus caeruleus are highly venomous and believed to be responsible for most of the poisonous bites in india. With the help of over 7,000 of the worlds best wildlife filmmakers and photographers, conservationists and scientists, arkive.
Ecvprothrombin activator the venom of echis carinatus sawscaled viper contains procoagulants. Effects of mucuna pruriens protease inhibitors on echis. Life threatening intracerebral haemorrhage following saw scaled. Prothrombin preparations which are treated with full doses of the procoagulant can be activated further, but. The highest mortality rate is seen in the final stages of the syndrome, which. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. Echis carinatus by renzo bartoloni italian 2015 isbn. These little snakes can be very aggressive and strike easily.
Coagulopathy caused by the main anticoagulant fractions of echis carinatus snake venom on blood. Along with hyperglycaemia there was a significant decrease of liver glycogen at 15 min and 1, 12 and 24 h. Download premium images you cant get anywhere else. All received polyvalent antivenom made, in part, with echis carinatus venom from southern india. In contrast to other part of asia, saw scale viper envenoming has not been reported to cause life threatening haemorrhagic manifestations in sri. One hundred and fifteen patients with poisoning caused by its bite were studied in the savanna region of nigeria, where victims of this snake may occupy 10 per cent of hospital beds. Pdf proteomics and antivenomics of echis carinatus. Clinical toxinology resources website provides information on venoms, toxins, antivenoms, diagnosis, treatment and emergency medicine, for snakebite, spiderbite, envenoming and poisoning by animals, plants, mushrooms. Sdsslab gel electrophoresis revealed that the prothrombin present in the patients eluate was cleaved by echis carinatus venom.
Poisoning by bites of the sawscaled or carpet viper echis. The results showed that gpmuc inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin activities and was thermally. The sawscaled viper echis carinatus is one of the principal causes of snake bites in india. Pdf snakebite envenoming by sochureks sawscaled viper. Revisiting sawscaled viper echis carinatus bites in the. Of the 304 snake bite admissions to the jaffna hospital in 2009, 217 71. All fractions except fractions 5 and 10 appeared as a single band on analytical native page. Pdf coagulopathy caused by the main anticoagulant fractions. It is the smallest of the big four dangerous snakes of india. It is the smallest member of the big four snakes that are responsible for causing the most snakebite cases and deaths, due to various factors including their frequent. For the haffkine institute, these snakes are procured for their venom. This page was last edited on 7 december 2014, at 14. Sep 11, 2015 echis carinatus, commonly called the sawscaled viper, is a venomous viper species found in parts of the middle east and central asia, and especially the indian subcontinent.
Echis carinatus is one of the venomous snakes in iran. Abstractechis carinatus sawscaled viper produces potent hemorrhagic venom that causes the. Pdf a snake breeder, 47yearsold man, was bitten by the. Some of these proteins exhibit types of enzymatic activities. Echis carinatus the sawscaled or carpet viper, also known as echis osellatus is the most significant cause of snakebite. Carpet viper envenomations are characterized by a venominduced consumption coagulopathy and systemic bleeding syndrome, in addition to local symptoms of painful progressive swelling and tissue destruction. Five subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here. In sri lanka, the sawscaled viper echis carinatus is distributed in the arid, dry and sandy coastal plains and in a prospective study we describe its bites in the jaffna peninsula.
Echis carinatus ocellatus stemmler 1970 echis carinatus pyramidum papenfuss 1969 echis ocellatus welch 1994. It is the smallest member of the big four snakes that are responsible for causing the most snakebite cases and deaths, due to various factors including their frequent occurrence in highly populated regions, and. Echis are responsible for many serious bites with lethal outcome. Pdf the proteome composition of echis carinatus carinatus venom ecv from india was studied for the first time by tandem mass. Echis carinatus is a venomous viper species found in parts of the middle east and central asia, and especially the indian subcontinent. This study was undertaken to further evaluate the protease inhibitory potential of gpmuc, a multiform glycoprotein, and other protein fractions from m. A 49residue protein, echistatin, which inhibits platelet aggregation, was purified from the venom of the sawscaled viper echis carinatus. Echis carinatus definition of echis carinatus by medical. Nov 23, 1974 echis carinatus is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality from snake bite in nigeria and in many other parts of the world.762 1556 655 13 567 1218 94 847 1305 275 60 799 85 450 622 1277 617 1439 183 310 579 185 682 535 595 728 1099 282 1462 739 1105 1430 674 1152 1063 1282 480 215 702 513 610 286 1051 849